Finland Shows Example in Localization

Article of the month

Helsinki, 1 March, 2005 — Finland Shows Example in Localization

In a worldwide activity for making IT systems more user friendly through localization, the Finnish organization model has been presented as exemplary. The goal is to find a national consensus on how computers shall present data such as dates and times, currency amounts and countries in each user's language. Major software companies participate in the activity, and they will implement the results rather soon.

In a worldwide activity for making IT systems more user friendly through localization, the Finnish organization model has been presented as exemplary. The goal is to find a national consensus on how computers shall present data such as dates and times, currency amounts and countries in each user's language. Major software companies participate in the activity, and they will implement the results rather soon.

Localized Software Makes Things Cosy

Information technology tends to use the English language and notational conventions of the English-speaking world, especially the United States. This has become an increasingly serious problem, as IT penetrates all areas of life and everyone has to face it, directly or indirectly.

This means, among other things, that we see computer-generated notations that deviate from our cultural heritage. We see "1.005" and have to find out, or even guess, whether it stands for a little more than 1, as in English notation, or one thousand five, as it traditionally means in Finnish. Even on official Web pages in Finnish we may encounter date notations like "3/4 2005" and need to guess whether it means 3rd of April or 4th of March.

Nowadays, both commercial and free software is often available in different language versions. This is often crucial to their popularity.

In some cases, the language of a program's interface can even be changed "on the fly", so that a simple command changes all texts from Finnish to Swedish, for example. This is important in a bilingual country with a large number of computers in public institutions, Internet cafés, schools, etc.

Online services, including search engines and e-commerce, need to be available in different languages as well. This is not just a matter of translating their fixed texts but also about presenting dates, prices, and other data extracted from databases, in the user's language.

However, the quality of the translations has often been criticized, for good reasons. Part of this problem is that although the basic menus, instructions, and error messages have been translated, the computer-generated parts of the texts often use original English notations, e.g. for dates, or use incorrectly localized notations.

There 's often a simple explanation: existing subprograms for printing things out have mostly been written for English language environment, and programmers use the subprograms instead of writing a lot of code of their own. Moreover, different vendors have often used different translations for the texts.

This is what the Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR) activity, by the worldwide Unicode Consortium, tries to address. It aims at agreed conventions for presenting certain types of data in a manner that corresponds to the user's language preference, or cultural preferences in general. Ultimately, such data is to be built into basic computer software (such as widely used subprogram libraries) so that programmers will find it easy to create localized software.

This idea of localization is not new, but what's new is that major software vendors and many other important organizations are seriously involved in the business. After all, if you are a software company that wants to compete in the international market by offering your products in different language versions, you don't want to decide on names of countries or time zones in different languages, or how quotation marks are used in them, or similar things. You want to be able to use some existing data for it, prepared and agreed upon as widely as possible.

Major software vendors have allowed the use of their own localization data for comparison tables. This is an indication of their commitment, since it allows the public monitoring of the progress that the vendors make in adopting the data.

From the ordinary computer user's point of view, this means that we can expect that software will use notations and names that are more familiar and acceptable to us. Moreover, the user may get more control over such presentation issues. In Finnish, localization is increasingly called "kotoistus" to express it. This interesting word is derived from "kotoinen" 'cosy, homely, familiar' and means 'making things (more) homely'. In a sense, this is about domestication of computers.

Localization Needs to Be Agreed Upon

In the work conducted by the Unicode Consortium, the crucial question is how to produce localization definitions for each language so that they are widely accepted by people who speak that language. After all, localization is about making things familiar to people.

The definitions being prepared are mainly intended for use in computer systems, e.g. in selection menus, or in computer-generated texts such as error messages or database search results. However, as a side effect, the results will be useful in other areas as well. In particular, people who translate or edit texts will find lists of names for languages and territories handy especially when they deal with less known languages and areas. The very existence of a large database on matters such as varying number and currency notation formats will raise awareness of cultural differences and the need to deal with them in information technology.

In Finland, this work has been organized as a process that is open to all but not loose. Several key organizations have been especially invited to join the work and to create a coordinating group. Moreover, this work is carried out under the umbrella of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (RILF, Kotus), with special funding from the Ministry of Education. Yet, the working groups are open to all interested people, and the proposals created by them are published on the WWW for public review and comments. The goal is to make interested experts involved, to create national consensus, making everyone happy, and do this is reasonable time.

The first proposals were published for review in early February. They contain Finnish names for all countries and territories that have an assigned international code, as well as for all human languages that have such a code. Later other proposals have been added, e.g. on date and time notations.

The Finnish approach appears to work well, and the Unicode Consortium has presented it as an example or a model in the presentations of the worldwide activity.

Jukka K. Korpela
IT Generalist and Specialist
jkorpela@cs.tut.fi

Links:

www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/icu/index.jsp
The International Components for Unicode (ICU) home page

www.unicode.org/cldr/
The Unicode Consortium, Common Locale Data repository

www.w3.org/International/
The World Wide Web Consortium, Internationalization activity

www.kotus.fi
Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

kotoistus.fi
The Finnish localization activity

Previously published Articles of the Month:

2002-09 School in the Grips of Change - Media Education in Finland
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=8534

2002-10 Finns Work for e-Accessibility
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=8962

2002-11 The Finnish Model of Information Society
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=9989

2002-12 ”Silicon Valley is more than a place, its a state of mind”
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=10716

2003-01 Data Security Challenges
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=11199

2003-02 Lifelong Education in Upper Secondary Distance Learning Schools and Virtual Networks
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=12244

2003-03 Finnish Lapland - More than Meets the Eye
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=13208

2003-04 A Renewed Policy to Promote Innovation
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=13545

2003-05 ICT Standardization in Europe and Globally – CEN/ISSS’s Role
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=14315

2003-06 Public-Private-Partnership Works Well in Finland
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=15229

2003-07 Information Technology in Nicaragua - Finland Offers a Helping Hand
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=15848

2003-08 Victory Development Partnership Project - Personal and Virtual Rehabilitation for IT Employment
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=16924

2003-09 Young People and Wireless Future
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=18041

2003-10 Video Message Transmits Sign Language
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=17911

2003-11 Combatting Spam Requires Global Co-Operation
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=18707

2003-12 Saving the Earth from Anarchy by Eliminating the Weakest Link
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=19243

2004-01-01 Information Society Models and the New Everyday Life
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=19717

2004-02-01 Quo vadis, Finnish Virtual University?
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=20501

2004-03-01 The Finnish Virtual University: Connections with the Bologna Process?
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=21702

2004-04-01 "Look What I Say" - Unique Solution Enables Face-to-Face Communication for Speech Impaired
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=22694

2004-05-01 Changes to Copyright Law Heavily Debated
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=23338

2004-06-01 Finnish and Italian Technology in the Global Environment of the European Union: a Comparison of ICT Strategies in Education
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=24566

2004-07-01 A New Law Designed to Improve Data Protection in Electronic Communications
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=25552

2004-08-01 The Etno.Net Website for Practicing and Aspiring Folk Musicians Includes Recordings and Learning Material Packages
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=26467

2004-09-01 Status of Wireless Service Business Today
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=27319

2004-10-01 People Over Fifty in Finland as Users of Internet
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=28452

2004-11-01 Preparing for Mobile Phone Viruses
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=29431

2004-12-01 Distributed and Virtual Learning in Finland
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=30467

2005-01-01 Online Public Services for the Benefit of Citizens
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=31283

2005-02-01 Public-Private Partnership in Developing Information Society Skills
www.e.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=32623

More information
jkorpela@cs.tut.fi